Hydrolysis of Ethyl Acetate

Complete hydrolysis can be rapidly obtained, if the ester is boiled under reflux with a dilute aqueous solution of either an alkali, such as sodium hydroxide, or of a strong inorganic acid

Acid value of given oil/fat

The acid value is the number which expresses in milligrams the amount of potassium hydroxide necessary to neutralise the free acids present in 1 g of the substance. Here direct titration is done taking a neutralized mixture

Iodine value of the given oil or fat

Iodine value of an oil or fat is the number of grams of iodine, which is absorbed by 100 g of the substance (oil or fat) under described conditions. It can be determined by the following method.

Synthesis of benzoic acid from alkyl benzoate

Esters are hydrolysed either by an acid or a base. Alkaline hydrolysis of ester is irreversible which is also called saponification. Acid hydrolysis of ester is a reversible reaction.

Synthesis of m-dinitrobenzene from nitrobenzene

Here nitration is occurring on nitrobenzene. It is an electrophilic aromatic substitution in presence of NO2, which is a strong electron withdrawing group and it directs the incoming substituents to the meta position.

Synthesis of 5-nitrosalisylic acid from salicylic acid

Nitration on salicylic acid occurs by placing a nitro group on the aromatic ring system via an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Here calcium nitrate is used as the nitrating agent in presence of acetic acid.

Synthesis of salicylic acid from alkyl salicylate

Alkaline hydrolysis of esters is called saponification and is an irreversible process. Here one mole of methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) reacts with two moles of sodium hydroxide