To prepare and submit mouthwash

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Aim– to prepare and submit mouthwash.


Mouthwashes are aqueous solutions containing one or more active ingredients and excipients. They are often in concentrated forms and used by swishing the liquid in the oral cavity. There are two types of mouthwashes, for therapeutic use and for cosmetic uses, the mouthwashes for therapeutic use contain active ingredients which can be used to reduce dental caries, gingivitis, plaque, and stomatitis. On other hand, mouthwashes used for cosmetic purposes may contain a flavoring agent or an antimicrobial that can reduce bad breath.1

As per recent information, therapeutic mouthwashes containing different drug molecules (antihistamines, amphotericin B, pilocarpine, chlorhexidine) have been used for different problems in the oral cavity, such as stomatitis, oral candidiasis, dry mouth, and plaque control. Moreover, interestingly, mouthwashes have been used for diagnostic purposes also. For instance, toluidine blue-containing mouth rinse can be used to detect oral cancer and lesion. 1

Alcohols, coloring agents, surfactants, and flavoring agents have commonly used excipients in mouthwashes, alcohol contains may vary from10 -20 % and it may improve the solubility of flavoring agents and other excipients, moreover, it may also mask the unpleasant taste of several active ingredients and might have preservative action.1 However, some reports suggest that alcohol-containing mouthwashes possess the risk of oral cancers.2 The addition of humectants (glycerine, sorbitol) can increase the viscosity of the mouthwash, its content in mouthwash can vary from 5-20%, additionally, it can enhance the sweet taste of the mouthwash. Besides this, other excipients such as surfactants (the non-ionic class is used more often than the anionic/cationic class) are used, its uses to enhance the solubility of flavors. To mask the disagreeable taste, flavors are used in the mouthwash, frequently used flavors are menthol, cinnamon, peppermint, and spearmint.

Moreover, interestingly, nowadays powder mouthwash are also prepared, it is needed to add the water before its use in patients. For instance, rebamipide-based powder mouthwash has been prepared for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced mucositis.3

Although alcohol-containing mouthwash and related cancer risk is not clear, researchers started working on herbal mouthwash preparations.  These days herbal mouthwashes have been prepared widely, researchers have prepared mouthwashes containing extract from different herbal plant parts, for instance, herbal mouthwash containing extract of neem. clove, cinnamon, and liquorice have been prepared and evaluated for oral disease.4 In another study, jibu et al, has prepared mouthwash using blue tea extract with antioxidant properties.5 Moreover, Singgih prepared an antimicrobial mouthwash using piper betel extract.6



Beaker, Stirrer/glass rod, Measuring cylinder, spatula


Neem, Clove, Cinnamon, Liquorice, Salt, Sterile water, Sodium benzoate

Formulation Table:



Name of Ingredient










Analgesics and anti-inflammatory




Flavoring agents and bactericidal




Sweetener and demulcent




Preservative (osmolytic)


Sodium benzoate




For the preparation of the mouthwash, the extract is obtained from neem, clove, cinnamon, and liquorice. Briefly, the leave of these materials was obtained and washed with sterile water followed by shadow drying. Then the aqueous extract was obtained by soaking all material in sterile water separately at 37 °C for 72 hours followed by subsequent filtration from Whatmann filter paper. Then the required salt is weighed and the salt solution is prepared simply by the addition of sterilized water to the weighed salt. The extract obtained from different substances is added to the salt solution in the given quantity.3

Evaluation- The prepared formulation is then evaluated by the color, odour, and pH testing



Mouthwash is prepared and submitted.

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  1. Felton L, Remington: Essential of Pharmaceutics, am, J Pharm Educ. 2013
  2. Werner, C.W. and R.A. Seymour, Are alcohol containing mouthwashes safe? Br Dent J, 2009. 207(10): p. E19; discussion 488-9.
  3. Ishii, N., et al., Preparation and Evaluation of a Powdered Rebamipide Mouthwash as In-Hospital Formulation: Considering Dispersion before Use in Patients. Pharmaceutics, 2021;13(11).
  4. Ojha, S., Formulation and evaluation of antibacterial herbal mouthwash against oral disorders. Indo Glob. J. Pharm. Sci, 2018. 8: p. 37-40.
  5. Rajeshkumar, S., A. Rajasekar, and R.M. Jibu, Preparation of Mouthwash Using Blue Tea and Its Antioxidant Activity. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 2021: 342-350.
  6. Singgih, M., S. Damayanti, and N. Pandjaitan, Antimicrobial activity of standardized piper betel extract and its mouthwash preparation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2014;6(7):243-6.


  1. How to use mouthwash?

    ANS- Usually mouthwash prepared by different manufacturers have an indication of its use, but generally it is recommended to keep the mouthwash in the mouth for at least 30 seconds with swishing, so it will come into contact of teeth.

  2. How does mouthwash removes bad breath?

    ANS- Mouthwash prepared for this use contains antimicrobials in the formulation and that kills the bacterial presences in the mouth, thus removing the bad breath produced due to bacteria.


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