Experiments on Impact of Jets

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This experiment is based on Newton’s second law of fluid motion which states that the external forces applied to control the volume of fluid in any direction is given by the rate of change of momentum in that direction.

If Newton’s second law is applied in the direction of the incident jet,1

Then, Force = mass * acceleration

i.e. Force = mass flow rate * change in velocity

or, F = m (V2 – V1)

F = ρQ (V2 – V1)

Where, ρ = Density of fluid,

And Q = Discharge of fluid.

This set up consists of a nozzle and a transparent cylinder through which the jet is striking the target plate, or a disc (Positioned just above nozzle) can be achieved. Under the action of jet and the weights, an arrangement for the plate movement is prepared.2 The plate is placed back to its original position by the action of a scale. In the complete setup, a collecting tank is used to find actual velocity and discharge through the nozzle.

The prime purpose of this experiment is to study the impact of the jet.

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Materials:   Impact of jet apparatus,


Stop Watch

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First of all, note down the dimensions, such as width, breadth and height of a collecting tank as well as the diameter of the nozzle. Also, note down the upper disc or plate’s position in the case when the jet is not running. Now, start the water supply to the nozzle. Then, place the weights on the disc when it is moving in the upward direction due to the strike of a jet. Due to the impact of loads, the disc comes back to its original position. After this, note down the total weights placed above of disc, and also calculate discharge at this position. Repeat this procedure for different flow rate, to estimate the actual discharge.

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The impact of the jet through the nozzle has been studied through this experiment. Introduction of analysis and design of hydraulic machines is mainly based on the knowledge of forces exerted on or by the moving fluids.3

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  1. X. W.-l. Z. M.-l. T. Z. LI Nai-wen, “Experimental study on energy dissipation of flood discharge in high arch dams without impact of jets in air,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 72-85, 2008.
  2. S. Eric Bollaert, “Scour of rock due to the impact of plunging high velocity jets Part I: A state-of-the-art reviewEric,” Journal of Hydraulic Research, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 451-464, 2010.
  3. D. A. Lyubimov, “Investigation of impact of jets with zero-net-mass flux on flow in curvilinear diffusers,” Heat and Mass Transfer and Physical Gasdynamics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 530-539, 2011.