[ps2id id=’background’ target=”/]
BACKGROUND
Angle of repose is defined as the maximum angle possible between the surface area of the pile of powder and horizontal plane. The angle of repose is given by^{1}
(o) = tan^{1} h/r
Where, h = height of pile
r = radius of the base of the pile
Bulk density is defined as the ratio of weight of powder to the bulk volume is the volume occupied by certain weight of powder when gently poured into the measuring cylinder.
Bulk density = weight / bulk volume
Tapped density is the ratio of weight of powder to the tapped volume.Tapped volume is the volume occupied by certain weight of powder after standard no. of tapping.^{2,3}
Tapped density = weight / tapped volume
Carr’s index may be defined as
Carr’s index = (Tapped density – bulk density / tapped density)× 100
Hausner’s ratio is the no. i.e corelated to flowability of the powder.
Hausner’s ratio = Tapped density / bulk density
Aim: To determine bulk density,tap density,angle of repose,carr’sindex,hausmer’s ratio and flow rate of powder.
[ps2id id=’requirements’ target=”/]
REQUIREMENTS
Chemical: Lactose,
Calsium carbonate,
ZnO,
Talc
Apparatus: Measuring cylinder,
Funnel,
Using balance,
Burette stand.
[ps2id id=’procedure’ target=”/]
PROCEDURE
1. Determination of bulk density and tap density
10gm of powder sample was weight accurately. Then it was transferred in to a 100ml measuring cylinder.The volume was noted as bulk volume V_{1}. Then the measuring cylinder was tapped 100 times. The volume noted as tapped volume.
Bulk Density=Weight/Bulk Volume
Tapped Density=Weight/Tapped Volume
2. Determination of carr’s index and housner’s ratio:
Carr’s Index= {(Tapped Density –Bulk Dencity) /Tapped Density } ×100
Housmer’s Ratio=Tapped Density/Bulk Density.
3. Determination of angle of repose:
A clean and dry funnel was taken and attached to a burette stand.A white paper site was placed 5cm below the tip of the funnel in a dry plat form. Gently this sample was pore in to the funnel. Using a pencil circle was drawn around the tip of powder .The height of the hip also measured. The same procedure was followed 3 times to obtain average reading.
Angle of repose (θ)=tan^{1}h/r
Where h = Average height of heap
R = Average radius of heap
4. Determination of flow rate
Flow Rate=Weight of Powder/Time Required To Flow
Result interpitation
CARR’S INDEX 
TYPE OF FLOW 
515 
EXCELLENT 
1216 
GOOD 
1821 
POOR 
>23 
VERY POOR 
ANGLE REPOSE 
TYPE OF FLOW 
<25 

2530 

3040 

>40 
[ps2id id=’conclusion’ target=”/]
CONCLUSION
The flow property of the given sample is _______________.
POWDER NAME 
BULK DENSITY 
TAPPED DENSITY 
CARR’S INDEX 
H.R 
ANGLE OF REPOSE 
FLOW RATE 
.  
.  
.  
. 
[ps2id id=’references’ target=”/][ps2id id=’1′ target=”/]
REFERENCES
 More HN, Hajare AA. Practical Physical Pharmacy. Career Publications. 2010: 120122
 Gaud RS, Gupta GD. Practical Physical Pharmacy. CBS Publisher and Distributors. 2009: 5556.
 Mohanta GP. Physical Pharmacy Practical Text, Pharma Book Syndicate. 2006: 4950.