Alcohol Fermentation using different substrates and its downstream processing

BACKGROUND Alcohol has a distinct, odorless liquid that is clear and colorless. Beer, wine, and other alcoholic drinks all include alcohol, which is what makes them intoxicated. In dilute aqueous solutions, it has a mildly pleasant flavor; in highly concentrated ones, it burns. In several nations around the world, it is also used as a … Read more

Media balancing experiments carbon and nitrogen as variables (in alcohol fermentation)

Aim: Media balancing experiments carbon and nitrogen as variables (in alcohol fermentation) BACKGROUND Various economically significant substances with uses in the production of energy, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and food are produced using fermentation technology on a large scale. Although fermentation technologies have been utilized for decades, the quest for sustainable product production that meets market demands … Read more

Strain improvement of the industrially important isolate A. niger using EtBr for higher yield of the product

BACKGROUND Strain improvement is the science and technology of modifying and enhancing microbial strains to increase their metabolic capabilities. Genetic engineering has made significant progress and is now widely used in various industrial microbiological fields. When Hopwood et al. initially described the generation of hybrid antibiotics through genetic engineering, there was a high expectation that … Read more

Determination of Growth curve of yeast and compute growth rate & growth yield

Yeast growth rate calculation, yeast population growth, yeast doubling time calculator, how to calculate specific growth rate from growth curve BACKGROUND Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic fungus that have a 5–10 m particle size. They belong to the group of organisms known as ascomycetes, which also includes species from the genera Neurospora and Sordaria. Yeasts have … Read more

Isolation of O & H Antigen from Salmonella typhi

Aim: Isolation of O & H Antigen from Salmonella typhi BACKGROUND Typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and other food-borne illnesses are all brought on by the Salmonella genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-lactose fermenting Enterobacteriaceae. Subspecies enterica serotypes Paratyphi A, B, and C are responsible for paratyphoid fever. The Widal test is the most popular diagnostic technique … Read more

Microbial Staining Methods

Aim: Microbial Staining Methods BACKGROUND The most of bacteria have refractive indices that are similar to those of the aqueous fluids in which they are floating and are mostly transparent and colourless. For visualization of the bacteria, we use stain and dyes. To improve the clarity of the microscopic image, staining is an adjunct technique … Read more

Affinity Purification of Immunoglobulin

Aim: Affinity Purification of Immunoglobulin BACKGROUND Numerous in vivo and in vitro applications of antibodies include drug targeting, the development of immunodiagnostics, immunoprophylactic, and immunotherapeutic, the detection of foodborne pathogens, adulterants, toxins, and residues in food samples, environmental analysis/monitoring, and the isolation of a variety of proteins and other targets for basic research and industrial … Read more