Microbiology

Isolation of O & H Antigen from Salmonella typhi

Aim: Isolation of O & H Antigen from Salmonella typhi BACKGROUND Typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and other food-borne illnesses are all brought on by the Salmonella genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-lactose fermenting Enterobacteriaceae. Subspecies enterica serotypes Paratyphi A, B, and C are responsible for paratyphoid fever. The Widal test is the most popular diagnostic technique … Read more

Microbial Staining Methods

Aim: Microbial Staining Methods BACKGROUND The most of bacteria have refractive indices that are similar to those of the aqueous fluids in which they are floating and are mostly transparent and colourless. For visualization of the bacteria, we use stain and dyes. To improve the clarity of the microscopic image, staining is an adjunct technique … Read more

Affinity Purification of Immunoglobulin

Aim: Affinity Purification of Immunoglobulin BACKGROUND Numerous in vivo and in vitro applications of antibodies include drug targeting, the development of immunodiagnostics, immunoprophylactic, and immunotherapeutic, the detection of foodborne pathogens, adulterants, toxins, and residues in food samples, environmental analysis/monitoring, and the isolation of a variety of proteins and other targets for basic research and industrial … Read more

Preparation of enzyme conjugated antibodies

Antibody conjugation protocol, enzyme conjugated antibody, antibody conjugation methods, enzyme-conjugated antibody elisa, conjugated enzymes, function of enzyme conjugate in elisa, antibody production steps, mechanism of antibody production pdf Aim: Preparation of enzyme conjugated antibodies BACKGROUND The enzyme-antibody conjugation is important tool in immunochemistry. Although certain enzymatic conjugations, like sortase-based protein terminal conjugation or even through … Read more

Purification of Immunoglobulin by Precipitation

BACKGROUND Glycoproteins termed immunoglobulin make up antibodies. A protein called immunoglobulin that binds to antigens is found on the B-cell membrane and is released into the serum by plasma cells. B-lymphocytes create immunoglobulins in response to external antigens. Using the protease enzyme, Rod Porter and Gerry Edelman described the immunoglobulin structure (Papain and Pepsin). Two … Read more